Sanskrit Dictionary A – M

sanskrit

A

Ahamkar – is the ego sense which claims these impressions for its own and stores them up as individual knowledge.  Evolved from Buddhi.
Ahimsa –  A yama.  Non-violence to any living thing; cultivate love for all, and try to see the one Atman within everybody.  Think of yourself as a servant to mankind.
Ajna – psychic centre situated at medulla oblongata; seat of intuition, higher knowledge; third eye; 6th chakra; centre of command, monitoring center. Anahat nada – unstruck sound heard in the right ear during meditation. [aaj^naa]: direction; injunction
Anahata – psychic/pranic center situated in the region of the heart and cardiac plexus; fourth chakra. Animan – the power to assume a minute form; siddhi
Apana – one of the pancha vayu; pranic air current operating in the lower abdominal region causing elimination through the excretory and reproductive organs. Aparigraha:  A yama.  Non-covetousness (detachment from material things); as above we are only
borrowing and identification with a material good or attachment to them causes suffering. Asamsakti- Unaffected by anything. Performs necessary duties by his own will.  SEVEN STAGES OF KNOWLEDGE – Stage 5
Asana – Posture – is to be seated in a position which is firm but relaxed.  Asana means two things: the place on which the yogi sits and the manner in which he sits there.  To take a position in which one can sit absolutely still and erect holding the chest, neck and head in a straight line but without strain. Holding the body erect helps in keeping the mind clear and present so that as the prana begins to flow
more freely it is not stop by restrictions in the posture.
Atman – God-within-the-creature is known; the Real Self; the Godhead within man; the Reality Asi – that Astaya:  A yama.  Non-stealing; we must also not harbour any feelings of covetousness, either toward persons or objects.
Ayurveda – Ancient Hindu medical system based on the Vedas
Avastha – state of condition of mind and consciousness achieved through effort.
Avatar – divine incarnation
Abhasa  [pronunciation: aabhaas]: reflection of consciousness
Abhijna [ubhij^na]: direct perception
Abhimana [ubhimaan]: attachment
Abhyasa [ubhyaas]: practice
Abhyasi [ubhyaasi]: one who practices
Achala [uchul]: unmoving; hill or mountain
Achit [uchit]: not sentient
Acharya [uchurya]: scholar, learned man; a term of respect
Adhama [ ]: lowest grade
Adhara [aadhaar]: support
Adhishtana [udhishthaan]: substratum
Adhridha [udhr^dh]: weak; not firm
Adhyaropa [udhyaarop]: superimposition
Adhyasika [udhyaasik]: superimposed
Advaita [udvait]: non-duality; incorrectly termed monism; a system of thought and a vedantist sect founded by Shankara
Advaitin [ ]: non-dualist
Adya [aadyaa]: primordial; original
Adyatmika sakti [aadyaatmik sh^akti]: power of the Self
Agami (a. karma) [aagaami karm]: actions of the present life expected to bear fruit in future births
Agni [ ]: fire
Aham [uhum]: embodied self; soul; the ego; the sense of “I”
Aham Brahmasmi [uhum bruhmaasmi]: I am Brahman
Aham sphurana [uhum sphurun]: the throb of Self-bliss in the heart
Aham svarupa [uhum svuroop]: one’s true nature
Aham vritti [vr^tti]: the ‘I’-thought
Ahankara [uhunkaar]: ‘I’ sense; ego-self; ‘the doer’
Ahimsa [uhimsaa]: nonviolence
Ajnana [uj^naan]: ignorance; knowledge of diversity
Ajnani [uj^naani]: one who has not realized the Self; unenlightened; ignorant of the Self
Akara [aakaar]: form or shape
Akasa (akasha) [aakaash^]: ether; space
Akriptopasaka [ukriptopaasuk]: one who has not done upasana or meditation
Alayavijnana [ ]: pure, self-existent consciousness
Amrita [umrit]: immortal
Amritanadi [umritunaadi]: the channel for the flow of consciousness from the Heart (Source) to the mind; the path by which it travels is termed archis
Anadi [unaadi]: without beginning
Ananda [aanund]: bliss; happiness; joy; Transcendence attained primarily through the affections manifests more as Bliss than as Knowledge
Anandatman [aanundutmun]: self in the state of bliss
Ananta [ununt]: endless; infinite
Anartha [unurtha]: evil; worthless
Anatman [unaatmun]: non-Self
Anava [aanuv]: limitation
Anichcha [unichchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’, pronounced without any vowel between; good luck!]: involuntary
Anitya [unitya]: transitory
Antah (antar) [untuH (untur)]: internal
Antah karanam (antahkarana) [untuH kurun(uM)]: means of perception; the mind; the ego; the thinking power
Antah pranayama [untuH praanaayaam]: internal breath-regulation
Antardhana [unturdhaan]: disappearance from sight
Antarmukha drishti [unturmukh dr^shti]: inward vision
Antarmukti manas [unturmukti munus]: inward-turned mind; mind retained in the Heart
Anu [unu]: atom
Anubhava [unubhuv]: experience; realization
Anushthana [unushthaan]: practice; attainment of knowledge
Anuttara samyak sambodhi [unuttur sumyuk sumbodhi]: see samyak sambodhi
Ap [aap]: water
Apana [upaan]: the life-force that goes down
Apara [upur]: the lower; inferior
Aparoksha [upurok^sh]: direct; immediate; direct experience (as opposed to sensory experience)
Apavada [upuvaad]: removal
Aprana [upraan]: beyond manifest life; devoid of life
Arati [ ]: divine service performed in the early morning or at dusk
Archis [ ]: see amritanadi
Artha [urtha]: money
Arudha [aarudh]: attainment
Aruna [urun]: red
Arupa [uroop]: formless; timeless being
Asamsakti [usumsh^ukti]: non-attachment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
Asamskrta [usunskr^t]: not pertaining to the impermanent; Chinese wu wei
Asana [aasun]: yogic posture
Asat [usut]: unreal
Asesha sakshi [ush^esh saak^shi]: witness of all
Ashram [ ]: hermitage
Ashtanga Yoga [ushtaang yog]: Yoga consisting of eight stages of discipline
Asrama [aash^rum]: one of the four life-stages of a spiritual seeker; the dwelling of a sage and his followers
Asraya [ ]: ground of Reality (as opposed to movement)
Asthira [usthira]: unsteady
Asuddha [ush^uddh]: bliss
Asukavi [usukuvi]: one who can versify impromptu
Asura [usur]: demon; similar to a Titan or fallen angel
Ati jagrat [uti jaagrut]: beyond waking
Ati sunya [uti sh^oonya]: beyond the void
Atiasrama (atyasrama) [utiaash^rum]: above the four stages of life
Atita [uteet]: beyond
Atma (atman) [aatm(un)]: the Self; principle of life and sensation; I AM; subjective moment of consciousness; in the highest sense, the Universal Spirit or the Supreme Soul of the Universe (see Paramatman)
Atma dhyana [aatma dhyaan]: contemplation on the Self
Atma jnani [aatma j^naani]: one who has realized the Self
Atma nishta [aatma nisht]: abiding in the Self
Atma prajna [aatma pruj^naa]: innate Self-consciousness
Atma prema [aatma prem]: Self-love
Atma sakti [aatma sh^ukti]: power of the Self
Atma siddhi [aatma siddhi]: Self-realization
Atma vichara [aatma vichaar]: inquiry into the Self
Atma vidya [aatma vidya]: knowledge of the Self
Atmasakshatkara [ ]: Self-realization; enlightenment
Atmanusandhana [aatmunusundhun]: thinking constantly of the Self
Atyanta vairagyam [utyunt vairugyum]: total dispassion
Avarana [aavurun]: covering
Avastha traya [uvusthaa truya]: the three states of consciousness, namely waking, dream and sleep
Avatar [uvutaar]: incarnation of God
Avidya [uvidyaa]: nescience; ignorance of our true nature; all consciousness or knowledge, so long as it is restricted to the subject-object manifold
Avritta chakshus [aavr^tt chuk^shus]: introverted look
Ayatana [aayutun]: repository

Bandha – to bind, the binding of prana with apana.  Binding, bondage; a posture in which organs and muscles are contracted and controlled, creating a psychomuscular energy lock which redirects the flow of energy or prana in the body and locks it into a specific area.
Bhakti Yoga – is the path of loving devotion to God.  Expressed by means of ritual worship, prayer and japam.  In most cases some aspect of God, or a divine incarnation is chosen, so that the devotee?s love may become more easily.  Devotional types are best suited to this practice.
Bhastrika – pranayama, bellows breathing in which the breath is forcibly drawn in and out through the nose in equal proportions, like the pumping action of the bellows.
Bhramari – pranayama, breathing practice in which a soft humming sound is produced during exhalation like the murmuring of the black bee.
Bindu – period, dot, zero, void, seed, semen.  Point of potential energy and consciousness, nucleus.
Brahma – Hindu God; one of the holy trinity, cosmic creator, potentiality of mooladhara chakra.
Brahma granthi – Within the sushumna there are three granthis or psychic/pranic knots which prevent the passage of kundalini shakti.  One is found in mooladhara chakra.  It is called brahma granthi and it ties the awareness to sensual perception and the physical world.
Brahmacharya – A yama.  Intelligent handling of sexual energy.
Brahmacharin – is a yogi who observes complete celibacy.
Brahman – The Reality (Atman) spoken of in its universal aspect ? that God is both within and without, instantly present and infinitely elsewhere, the dweller in the atom and the abode of all things.
Buddhi – is the discriminative faculty which classifies these impressions and reacts to them.  Buddhi evolves from mahat.
Bhagavad-Gita – Hindu poem of Arjuna and Krishna
Bhadrasana – gracious pose, sitting posture
Bahir pranayamam [buhir praanaayaam]: external breath regulation
Bahir mukha drishti [buhir mukh dr^shti]: outward turned consciousness
Bahir mukhi manas [buhir mukh munus]: letting the mind go out of the Heart; externalization
Bahudaka [buhooduk]: a sannyasin who wanders about
Bahya [baahya]: external
Bala [baal]: child
Bandha [bundh]: bondage
Bandha hetu [bundh hetu]: cause of bondage
Beeja [beej]: seed (see bija)
Bhagavad-gita [bhuguvud geet]: Hindu religious scripture, “almost wholly in the form of a dialogue between Krishna, who represents the Self, the Atman, or Cosmic Consciousness, and Arjuna, who symbolizes the egoistic man of action. It gives a brief resume of the Roads by which Union or Yoga may be attained. This is one of the most important manuals that point the Way to Cosmic Consciousness.” (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)
Bhagavan[bhuguvun]: God; the Lord; one who has realized his identity with the Self
Bhajan (bhajana) [bhujun]: worship (of the Lord); singing God’s praises, esp. in chorus
Bhakta [bhukt]: devotee
Bhakti [bhukti]: devotion; love (of God)
Bhakti marga [bhukti maarg]: path of devotion
Bharata [bhurut]: shining soul
Bhashyakara [bhaashyukur]: commentator
Bhavana [bhaavun]: contemplation of a personified deity with great emotion
Bheda [bhed]: difference; differentiation
Bhikshu [bhik^shu]: Buddhist monk, literally beggar
Bhoga [bhog]: enjoyment
Bhogya vasta [ ]: child
Bhogyam [bhogyuM]: that which is enjoyed
Bhokta [bhokt]: enjoyer
Bhuma [bhoomaa]: all-comprehensive; the Absolute
Bhumika [bhoomikaa]: stage
Bhutatathata[ ]: the Absolute viewed as the universal womb
Bija [beej]: seed; source
Bija-mantra [beej muntra]: a one-word seed-mantra or exclamation of power
Bodha [bodh]: knowledge; Truth
Bodhi [bodhi]: enlightenment; full illumination; the opposite of avidya
Bodhisattva [bodhisuttva]: destined for enlightenment but wants to take all beings along
Bodhikaya [bodhikaaya]: the body of the Absolute viewed as the fruit of enlightenment
Brahma [bruhm]: Lord of Creation; God as the Creator; “I am present”
Brahmachari [bruhmuchaari]: a celibate; student stage of life
Brahmacharya[bruhmuchurya]: celibacy
Brahmaivaham [bruhmaivaahuM]: Brahman am I
Brahmajnana [bruhmuj^naan]: realization of one’s absolute being
Brahmajnani [bruhmuj^naani]: one who has realized the Self
Brahmakaravritti [bruhmaakaaruvr^tti]: concept in the form of Brahman
Brahman [bruhmun]: the Universal Self; the Absolute
Brahmanishta [bruhmaanishtha]: one who is established in Brahman
Brahmarandhra [ ]: Brahma-aperature; opening in the crown of the head; fontanelle; “the tiniest of aperatures, in which is the silent, primordial sound, which gives you the impression that you are, but you really are not” (Nisargadatta)
Brahmavid [bruhmuvid]: one who has realized Brahman
Buddha [buddh]: one who is aware; a synonym for the Buddhakaya or Absolute state, where the Real Self is known for what it is
Buddhi [same]: intellect; one of the four aspects of the internal organ; “It is also Compassion, in the highest sense, the very Soul of the Law of Harmony or Equilibrium” (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)

Chandra – moon
Chitta – mind
Chakra [chukra]: – wheels, seven centers of energy in the sushumna.  Circle, wheel, vortex; pranic/psychic center in the subtle body responsible for specific physiological and psychic functions; conjugating point of nadis. wheel; subtle center of energy in the body
Chaitanya [chaitunya]: consciousness

Chakshus [chuk^shus]: eye
Chanchala [chunchula]: changing, fickle
Chandrayana [ ]: particular method of expiatory fasting
Chela [ ]: student; disicple
Chidabhasa [chidaabhaas]: reflected consciousness
Chidakash [ ]: consciousness
Chidananda [chidaanund]: bliss of the Self
Chidvyoman (chitt vyoman) [chidvyomun]: expanse of consciousness
Chinmaya [chinmuya]: full of consciousness
Chinta [chintaa]: thought, idea
Chintamani [chintaamuni]: wish-fulfilling gem
Chit [same]: Absolute Intelligence, universal consciousness
Chitakasa [ ]: Mental ether (all-pervading)
Chit jada granthi [chit jud grunthi]: the knot between pure consciousness and the insentient body; the ego
Chitta [chitt]: memory aspect of mind; the mental mode turned towards objects
Chitta nirodha [chitt nirodh]: control of mind
Chitta suddhi [chitt sh^uddhi]: purity of mind
Chitta vilasa [chitt vilaas]: play of mind
Chittaikograta [chittaikogrutaa]: one-pointedness of mind

D

Dharana – Concentration is holding the mind within a center of spiritual consciousness in the body, or fixing it on some divine form, either within the body or outside it.
Dhanurasana – bow pose
Dhauti – second of the shatkarmas; cleansing technique of the eyes, ears, tongue, forehead, oesophagus, stomach, rectum and anus.
Dosha – the three fundamental terms of Ayurvedic physiology.
Dyana – Meditation is an unbroken flow of thought toward the object of concentration.  Prolonged concentration.  In the practice of meditation, a succession of identical waves (thoughts) are raised in the mind; and this is done so quickly that no one wave is allowed to subside before another arises to take its place.
Dahara vidya [duhuraa vidyaa]: contemplation of the deity in the heart
Dana [daan]: gift; alms; relinquishment
Darsan(a), darshan [dursh^un]: seeing; vision
Dasi [daasee]: courtesan
Deha(m) [deha(M)]: body; existence
Deham, naham, koham, soham’ I am the body; I am not the body; who am I-I am He.
Dehatma buddhi [dehaatma buddhi]: I-am-the-body
Dehavasana [dehuvaasunaa]: attachment to the body
Deva [devaaH]: a god or celestial being
Devakanya [ ]: a class of minor female divinity
Devata [devutaa]: a goddess
Devi [same]: the Divine Mother; a goddess
Dharana [dhaarunaa]: concentration of mind; one of the eight stages of Raja Yoga
Dharma [dhurmuH]: teaching of Buddha; universal law; way or path; an entity of any sort – thing, idea, concept, etc; virtuous deeds; harmonious life; natural duty; inherent qualities
Dharmakaya [dhurmukaayaa]: the Dharma-Body or the Absolute, viewed as the Ultimate Reality with which Buddhas or Enlightened Beings are one and indivisible
Dharma dhatu [dhurm dhaatu]: the Absolute, i.e. the Dharma-Realm
Dharma Raja [dhurm raaj]: the Buddha
Dharma sastri [dhurm sh^aastri]: one well-versed in the scriptures relating to dharma
Dhatu(s) [dhaatu]: humors; constituent elements of the body
Dhriti [dhr^tiM]: steadfastness
Dhyana [dhyaan]: meditation; contemplation; the seventh rung in the eightfold ladder of yoga
Dhyana siddhi [dhyaan siddhi]: successful meditation
Dikpalas [dikpulus]: gods who protect the various quarters
Diksha [dik^sh]: spiritual initiation
Divya chakshus [divya chuk^shus]: divine eye
Drashta [drushtaa]: seer
Dridha [dr^dh]: firm
Drik [dr^k]: he who sees; the subject
Drishti [dr^shti]: look; seeing
Drishti srishti [dr^shti sr^shti]: simultaneous creation
Drisya [dr^sh^ya]: that which is seen; the object
Drisya vilaya [dr^sh^ya viluya]: disappearance of the objective world
Drisyanuviddha [dr^sh^yaanuviddh]: associated with something seen
Dukha [dukh]: misery; frustration
Dvaita [dvait]: duality
Dvandva [dvundv]: pair of opposites
Dvividha (dwividha) [dvividh]: two-fold

Ekagrata (one-pointedness): concentration
Enju (growing vegetables)
Enjudo (life prolonging room; the healing room of a monastery)
Eka [ek]: one
Ekanta vasa [ekaant vaas]: free from mental concepts; “dwelling in mental solitude”

F

Fen/bun (mutuality)
Fudo-shin (immovable mind)
Fuga(refinement of life)
Fugin (chanting scriptures)
Funi(nonduality)
Furyu (feeling for nature)
Fushiki or Fuchi/Pu-shih (beyond knowledge)
Fusu(monk in charge of the accounts and business affairs of a monastery)
Fuzui (a monk assigned as attendant to the head monk)

G

Gajakarani – practice of hatha yoga;  regurgiation.
Gariman – the power to become weighty; siddhi
Gomukasana – cowface pose
Granthi – knot in the pathway of the kundalini energy.
Gunas – described as ‘energies’ sometimes as ‘qualities’.  A triangle of forces, opposed yet complementary.  The gunas are sattwa, rajas and tamas.
Guhyasanas – positions, postures, that are imparted to the student orally after certain initiations.  They are asanas that can be performed only by the yogi who has learned to govern his body completely with his higher consciousness.
Ganapati[gunuputi]: the elder son of Siva, the remover of obstacles; same as Ganesha, the chief of Siva’s hosts
Ganapati [gunuputi]: consciousness
Ganesan [ ]: darkness
Ganja [gunj]: a narcotic; hashish
Gate [guta]: gone
Gatha [ ]: a verse, usually of a sacred kind
Gayatri[gaayutri]: a sacred Vedic mantra
Gita [geet]: song
Gnana[j^naan]: see jnana
Gnani [j^naani]: see jnani
Gopuram [same]: temple tower
Granthi [grunthi]: knot
Granthi nasam [grunthi naash^um]: destruction of the knot (of ignorance)
Grihastha [gr^husthaaH]: householder
Grihini [gr^hini]: housewife
Guna(s) [gun]: the three fundamental qualities, tendencies or stresses that underlie all manifestations: sattva, rajas and tamas
Gunatita [gunaateet]: one who has transcended the gunas
Guru[same]: a spiritual master
Guru kripa[guru kr^puH]: guru’s grace

Hatha Yoga – the physical practice of postures and breathing exercises.  Prepares the body for spiritual experience. [hutha yog]: a form of yoga involving body postures, and for gaining control over Prana
Halahala – a mythological poison, the first product to result from the churning of the ocean of milk by the gods and demons.
Hamsa[hums]: advanced sannyasi
Hanuman [ ]: a powerful deity, son of the Wind god; great devotee of Sri Rama; famous monkey who Helped Rama in his fight with Ravana
Hasta [hust]: hand
Hetu [same]: cause, reason
Hinayana[heenuyaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism; prevalent in Southeast Asia
Hiranyagarbha [hirunyugurbh]: universal consciousness; cosmic mind; cosmic egg; the Unmanifested mind (see mahat tattva), the “golden womb”
Homa [hom]: sacrifice in fire
Hridaya(m)

: heart; spiritual center of the body
Hridaya granthi

: knot of the heart; the idea that one is one’s body
Hrit

: heart
Hrit pundarika

: the heart lotus

I

Ida – on the left, major nadi running on the left side of the spine from mooladhara to ajna through which manas (chitta, ichchha) shakti flows, and which governs the mental processes.
Ishwara – is the supreme Ruler of the universe; its creator, sustainer and dissolver.   Ishwara is Brahman seen within Prakriti.
Isita – the power to shape anything as desired; siddhi
Ichcha [ichchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’, pronounced without any vowel between]: desire; will
Idam [idum]: this
Indra [indraa]: Lord of the devas; first student of Brahma vidya
Indriya(s) [indriyuH]: senses
Isa [eesh^]: Supreme Lord
Ishta devata [isht devutaa]: the god one likes to worship
Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of Lord of the worlds
Isvara anugraha [eesh^vur unugruha]: God’s grace
Isvara drishti [eesh^vur dr^shti]: seeing everything as God
Isvara prasada [eesh^vur prusaad]: God’s grace
Isvara svarupa [eesh^vur svuroop]: the true form of God
 

J

Jalandara bandha – throat lock
Japam/Japa – the act of repeating the mantram.
Jnana -The path of intellectual discrimination.  The way of finding Brahman through analysis of the real nature of phenomena.  The jnana yogi rejects all that is transient and apparent and superficial saying “not this, not this” so comes to Brahman by the process of elimination.  Knowledge into the Enquiry “Who am I”.
Jada[jud]: insentient
Jaganmaya[jugunmaaya]: the mystery of the world
Jagat[jugut]: world; changing
Jagrat[jaagrut]: waking state
Jagrat sushupti [jaagrut sushuptiH]: aware or awake while asleep; being aware but not concerned
Jai[same]: victory
Jala [jula]: water
Janma[junma]: birth
Japa [jup]: repetition of a sacred word or syllable or name of God
Japa karta[jup kurtaa]: one who does japa
Jirna [jeern]: decayed
Jiva[jeev]: individual soul or ego
Jivanmukta[jeevunmukt]: realized soul
Jivanmukti[jeevunmukti]: liberation while alive
Jivatman [jeevaatmun]: the individual self
Jnana(m) [j^naan(aM)]: knowledge of the Absolute; enlightenment; Supreme Knowledge; Self-realization
Jnana bhumika(s) [j^naan bhoomikaa]: stages of knowledge (seven)
Jnana chakshus [j^naan chuk^shus]: eye of wisdom
Jnana drishti [j^naan dr^shti]: wisdom-insight
Jnana grantha [j^naan gruntha]: Vedantic works
Jjnana lakshana [j^naan luk^shun]: sign of wisdom
Jnana marga [j^naan maarg]: path of knowledge
Jnana vichara [j^naan vichaar]: inquiry regarding knowledge
Jnana yoga [j^naan yog]: the method of realizing the Absolute through knowledge
Jnanagni [j^naanaagni]: fire of wisdom
Jnanameva chakshus [ ]: All-seeing eyes
Jnanendriya [j^nunendriya]: sense organ
Jnani[j^naani]: sage; one who has realized the Self
Jothi (jyoti) [jyotiH]: light; effulgence

K

Kapalabhati – sixth of the shatkarmas; frontal brain purification.
Kapha – ka=water and pha which refers to the process of biological evolution therefore kapha -“life-fluid”.  It is the fertile water for the play of life.  It produces connecting, nourishing, developing and fortifying functions; it promotes the well being of the body by its lubricating action. Thus it supplies the water for the roots of life. A dosha.
Karma – a mental or physical act.  The consequences of our past actions in this and previous lifetimes.
Karma Yoga – The path of Selfless Service Work and Action; a spiritual volunteer of sorts.  Dedicating the fruits of one’s work to God.  Action is transcended by action.  The bonds of attachment fall away. This path is best suited to vigorous temperaments, which feel the call to duty and service in the world of human affairs.  It will show people how to ?find inaction that is within action, the calm in the midst of the turmoil.?
Kevala kumbhaka – spontaneous breath retention, when fluctuation of the breath ceases spontaneously, without conscious effort.
Khecari – mudra; posture in which the tongue closes the openings into the throat of the nasal passage, pharynx and trachea.
Kriya – ‘work toward’; cleansing techniques
Kriyavati – manifests in yogis who have awakened kundalini by way of hatha yoga; spontaneous movement.
Kukkutasana – the crow pose
Kumbhaka – is the moment between inhalation and exhalation or vice versa, when the breath is retained for some time.
Kevala Kumbhaka – spontaneous breath retention, when fluctuation of the breath ceases spontaneously, without conscious effort.
Kundalini – According to the physiology of raja yoga, a huge reserve of spiritual energy is situated at the base of the spine – that which is coiled up also known as the serpent power. [kundulini]: primordial cosmic energy located in the individual; mystic circle of three and a half coils situated in the umbilical region; yogic principle of serpent power
Kurmasana? the tortoise pose
Kailas[kailaas]: a mountain in the Himalayas reputed to be the home of Siva
Kaivalya[kaivulya]: Absolute Oneness; final emancipation
Kali yuga [kuli yug]: the last of the four ages of the world
Kalpana [kulpunaa]: idea; imagination of the mind; creation
Kama [kaam]: desire; physical love; lust
Kantha[kuntha]: throat
Kanthabharana [kunthaabhurun]: neck ornament
Kanya [kunyaa]: virgin
Kara[ ]: a combining form meaning achieved or achievement
Karana[kaarun]: cause
Karana sarira [kaarun sh^ureer]: causal body
Karma [kurm]: action; work; deeds; also the result of action
Karma marga [kurm maarg]: path of ritual, religious duties, and action
Karma samya [kurm saamya]: good and bad actions in equal proportions
Karma traya [kurm truya]: the three kinds of karma, namely sanchita, agami and prarabdha Karma yoga [kurm yog]: the spiritual path of action
Karmendriya[kurmendriya]: organ of action
Karpura arati [kurpoor aaruti]: the waving of lighted camphor during puja
Karta[kurtaa]: he who does an act; doer
Kartrtva [kurtr^tva]: doership
Kartrtva buddhi [kurtr^tva buddhi]: sense of being the doer
Kashaya[kushaaya]: latent impurity
Kashaya[kaashaaya]: ochre-colored garment
Kayakalpa [kaayukulp]: medicinal preparation for prolonging life
Kayasiddhi [kaayusiddhi]: making the body proof against injury
Kendra [ ]: center; heart
Kevala kumbhaka [kevul kumbhuk]: retention of breath leading to stilling of the mind
Kevala nirvikalpa [kevul nirvikulp]: the state of remaining without concepts; bliss of vijnana
Kevala samadhi [kevul sumaadhi]: samadhi in which activities of body and mind are only merged
Khanda [khund]: division
Khyati[khyaati]: theory
Klesa [klesh^]: a defilement, passion etc.
Kousalam [koush^ulum]: skill
Kosa[ ]: sheath
Krama mukti [krum mukti]: liberation by degrees
Krama srishti [krum sr^shti]: gradual creation
Krida [kr^d]: play; pastime
Kritopasaka [kritopaasuk]: one who has done upasana or meditation
Kriya[ ]: physical action
Krodha [krodh]: anger
Kshanti[k^shunti]: forebearance
Kshetra [k^shetra]: temple; in Yoga, field of the body
Kshetrajna [k^shetruj^na]: the conscious principle (Knower) in the field of the body; the absolute witness of the three states of the self – waking, dream and sleep
Kshipta [k^shipt]: active
Kumbha [kumbh]: pot used for keeping water
Kumbhaka[kumbhuk]: retention of breath
Kumkuma [same]: vermilion powder applied to the forehead
Kutichaka [kuteechuk]: a sannyasin who lives permanently in a hut
Kuvasana [kuvaasun]: bad tendency

L

Laghiman – the power to become light; siddhi
Laya – merging, dissolution.
Laghu [lughu]: light; easy
Lakshana [luk^shun]: sign; definition
Lakshya [luk^shya]: aim; target; goal; attention
Lakshyartha [luk^shyaartha]: implied meaning
Laya [luya]: dissolution; merging; in Yoga, absorption of breath and mind in the heart
Lila (leela) [leela]: play or sport
Linga [ling]: symbol ,Phallus , Reffered to Male Penis
Linga sarira [ling sh^ureer]: subtle body
Loka [lok]: world; that which is seen
Loukika [loukik]: worldly

M

Mahat – The Great Cause – the first stage of evolution for undifferentiated Prakriti.  The cosmic ego sense; the first dawning of the differentiated ego sense.  The first layer above our true self.
Mahiman – the power to assume an extensive form; siddhi
Manas – is the recording faculty; receives impressions gathered by the sense from the outside world.
Manipura – literally means city of jewels; psychic and pranic center behind the navel within the spinal column; corresponding to the solar plexus in the physical body.
Mantram – consists of one or more holy names which the disciple is to repeat and meditate upon.Considered a seed within which spiritual wisdom is passed down from one generation to another.
Mantra – literally, an “instrument of thought.” A prayer or song of praise; a mystical verse or magical formula used to invoke a deity or to acquire a divine power. Commonly used to refer to any word, phrase or prayer used for meditation. The Lord’s Prayer and Hail Mary are but two examples of a Christian mantra.
Matsyendrasana – pose of Matsyendranath; major pose of hatha yoga in which the spine is twisted.
Maya – illusion
Mayurasana – peacock pose
Mulabandha – root lock
Muladhara – root chakra, the lowest chakra, at the root of the spinal column
Mudra – literally means gesture, physical, mental and psychic attitude which expresses and channelizes cosmic energy within the mind and body; also means grain, one of the elements of the pancha makara sadhana in tantra.
Murccha pranayama – fainting or swooning breath in which the breath is inhaled slowly and retained for an extended period of time.
Madhya [mudhya]: center; mixed; middling
Madhyama [mudhyum]: a stage in uttering sounds; middle grade
Mahadakash[ ]: the entire universe; world of action
Maha[ ]: great
Maharshi (Maha Rishi) [muhur^shi]: great rishi or sage
Mahaparinirvana[muhaapurinirvaan?]: ultimate Nirvana (Nirvana can be achieved in this lifetime; ultimate Nirvana then follows at death)
Mahasunya[muhaash^oonya]: great void
Mahat[muhut]: intellectual principle as source of ahankara
Mahat tattva (mahattava) [muhaat tuttva]: essential principle of being; the great principle (from the Absolute emantes the Unmanifest, from it Mahat, and from Mahat the ahankara)
Mahatma [muhaatmaa]: lofty soul; highly spiritual person
Mahavakya(s) [muhaavaakyaa]: the four main sentences proclaiming the truth of Brahman, one from each Veda
Mahayana [muhaayaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism, prevalent in the more northerly countries of Asia – China, Tibet, Japan etc.
Mahesvara[muhesh^vuraH]: one of the five aspects of Siva, as veiling the Truth from souls till their karma is completely worked out; also, Siva as Para-Brahman, the Absolute
Malaparipaka [mulupuripaak]: complete removal of impurity
Malina [mulin]: impure
Manana [munan]: constant thinking over what has been heard; reflection; meditation; the second of the three stages of Vedantic realization
Manas[munus]: mind, reason, mentality; also used for the aggregate of chitta, buddhi, manas and ahankara
Mani [muni]: jewel
Manolaya [munoluya]: (temporary) subsidence of the mind; dissolution of the mind into its cause
Manomaya kosa [munomaaya kosh^]: sheath of mind
Manonasa[munonaash^]: extinction of the mind
Manonigraha[munonigruha]: rendering the mind quiescent
Manta[muntaa]: thinker
Mantra (mantram) [muntra(M)]: sacred syllable(s) used in meditation
Mantrajapa [muntra jap]: repetition of a mantra
Marana[muruN]: causing death through supernatural powers
Marga[maarg]: path
Maru marichika [muru mureechikaa]: mirage seen in a desert
Math(mutt) [ ]: meeting place; abode of Sadhus
Mati[muti]: thinking power
Mauna[same]: see mouna
Maya[maayaa]: illusion; the power of Brahman by which it manifests the world; the veiling and projecting power of the universe
Maya vada [maayaa vaad]: the doctrine of maya
Mayavadi [ ]: one who says the world is an illusion
Mayasakti [maayaash^ukti]: the power of maya
Medha [medhaa]: intellect
Mitha[ ]: non-existent
Mithya[mithyaa]: the false; unreal
Moda [mod]: joy which is higher than priya
Moksha[mok^sh]: Liberation; freedom from transmigration
Moodha[moodh]: dull
Moola [mool]: root; source
Mooladhara[moolaadhaar]: one of the yogic centers of the body
Mouna (mauna) [same]: Silence; the Truth of Brahman, expressed by the Brahman-knower by his mere abidence in stillness
Mouna diksha [ ]: initiation by silence
Mriga trishna [mr^g tr^shn]: water of a mirage
Mudra[mudraa]: hand pose in worship and dance
Mukta[same]: one who is liberated
Mukti[same]: Liberation
Mula[ ]: origin; root; base
Mulavidya[moolaavidyaa]: primal ignorance
Mumukshu[mumuk^shu]: one who aspires to Liberation; the first stage, when the seeker feels that there is something beyond this material universe but is still identified with his body-mind; the next stage is that of the sadhaka
Mumukshutva [mumuk^shutva]: desire for Liberation
Muni[same]: sage; austere person
Murti[same]: idol

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